Equation Fields
Equation Fields enable more complex formula functions to be run on your values.
For instance, you can create an equation formula to extract the name of the month from your date values.
Equation fields can be used in combination with Formula fields and can be nested within other equation fields.
Within this article we will explore the different functions you can use to create equations on your values and we will also demonstrate how to create equations such as the sample equation listed above.
Equation video guide clip
Watch the brief equations overview video below to get a general insight of how you can use equations to empower your field values.
Creating An Equation Field
To create an equation field, select the Equation field type from the Number field type category on the Add Field Menu within the data table that you would like to add this equation field.
When creating an equation field, there are several settings you can customize such as those highlighted in the image below.

Name this is where you can name your equation field. For instance, "Day of Month" or "Time Difference".

Description this is where you can optionally provide a brief description of this field for your own reference.

Equation this is where you can define your equation by selecting fields from the Add Field dropdown list, selecting your desired Math, Text, or Date function, and configuring your fields and functions within the Equation Editor. The Equation Editor refers to the box in which you enter your equation (labelled "Enter Equation" with placeholder text).
When creating a new equation, there are several formatting rules that apply across all fields and functions:
A. When you select a function from either the Math, Text, or Date function dropdown list, the function will be added to the Equation Editor followed by a pair of parentheses. For instance, if you select the UPPER function from the Text Function dropdown list, it will be added to the Equation Editor as "UPPER()".
B. When you select a field from the Add Field dropdown list, the field will be added to the Equation Editor within braces. For instance, if you select the Customers field from the Add Field dropdown list, it will be displayed within the Equation Editor as "{Customer}".
C. To create a valid equation, all fields must be placed within the parentheses of the function.
If you are creating an equation with multiple fields, all fields must be placed within the parentheses. In general, your entire formula must be included within the parentheses.
Below is a GIF demonstrating successful equation formatting following the above rules. The example used in the GIF is of an equation to display customers' names in Uppercase formatting. As you can see, the UPPER function is added, the Customers Field is added, and then the Customers field is placed within the function parentheses, creating a valid equation.
As you can see on the live app, this equation field was successfully created.
Note: Once you enter your equation formula, you must click on the Validate Equation button that will confirm whether or not your entered equation is formatted correctly and deemed valid. If your equation is deemed invalid, you will see an "Invalid Equation" error message and will not be able to save your equation as entered. Only once you change your equation to a correct formatting and receive a "The Equation is Valid" confirmation message will you be able to save your equation.

Output Type this is where you can choose the field output type for the resulting value of your equation. You can choose to display the results of your equation as a text value, number value, or date value.
The output type you choose is significant as it will affect your ability to filter records within your components. For instance, if you would like to create a record rule to update your current record based on a certain condition, fields saved as a text output will display textrelated conditions such as "contains" or "starts with" while fields saved as a date output will display daterelated conditions such as "is today" or "is before today".
Now that we have defined the universal settings you can customize when creating any equation field, let's explore the different functions you can use to create various types of equations.
Functions
As discussed above, there are three types of functions you can utilize within your equations:
 Math Functions
 Text Functions
 Date Functions
Additionally, there is another type of function you can utilize specifically when creating conditional equation fields called the IF function.
IF Statements
The IF function is used within conditional equation fields to generate a result based on a given condition. IF Statements refer to the IF(formula) statement entered within the equation editor.
IF Statements expect three arguments as input with each argument separated by a comma. As illustrated in the image below, the first argument is the condition, the second argument is the desired output if the condition is true, and the third argument is the desired output if the condition is false. Every IF statement should follow the same formatting as illustrated in the image below.
For instance, say you have an Orders data table with a Total Cost field and you would like to create a new field with an updated total cost that adds a $5 shipping fee for every order with a total cost of less than or equal to $100. Meaning, if the total cost of the order is under or equal to $100, add a $5 shipping fee, otherwise keep the total cost asis. You can accomplish this by creating a new equation field and within the Equation Editor, type "IF" followed by a left parentheses. Then enter the three arguments of (condition, true, false) as illustrated below:
Let's breakdown the 3 arguments of this IF Statement with the following illustration:
The following image displays the results of this conditional IF equation. As you can see, only Total Cost values under or equal to $100 have been calculated to a new value of plus +$5. Total Cost values above $100 remain the same.
Argument Formatting
Condition, true, and false arguments can include fields, static values, math operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc.), other functions, and comparison operators.
IF Statements can not be added inside other IF Statements.
Adding Comparison Operators to arguments within an IF Statement
Below is a list of common comparison operators you can use within arguments of an IF Statement:
 a>b (a is greater than b)
 a<b (a is less than b)
 a>=b (a is greater than or equal to b)
 a<=b (a is less than or equal to b)
 a=b (a equals b)
 a<>b (a does not equal b)
Adding functions to arguments within an IF Statement
You can add functions to condition, true, and false arguments within an IF Statement.
For instance, if we would like to track which of our customers are using a "tadabase.io" email address, we can create an equation field using the following IF Statement:
Within the condition argument of this IF Statement, we are extracting the value from after the @ symbol in the domain name and if the condition is equal to "tadabase.io", set the value to "Valid", otherwise set the value to "Invalid".
Below are the results of this IF Statement in action. As we can see, customers using a "tadabase.io" domain are tracked as "Valid" within the Valid Domain field (our equation field) while customers using a non "tadabase.io" domain are tracked as "Invalid" within the Valid Domain field.
Nesting existing equations within new IF Statements
Existing equations using IF Statements can be nested within new IF Statements. However please keep in mind that equations are run in the order that they are displayed in your data table. If the first equation depends on the last equation, your data will not be returned correctly.
Math Functions
For a comprehensive list of equations using math functions, please click here.
Text Functions
For a comprehensive list of equations using text functions, please click here.
Date Functions
For a comprehensive list of equations using date functions, please click here.
Equation Types
There are three types of equations you can create:
 Date Equations
 Number Equations
 Text/String Equations
Let's explore each of these three equation types and define the various equations you can create with date, math, text, and conditional IF functions.
Date Equations
Date equations can be created using date functions.
Date Functions
Below is a comprehensive list of all the date functions you can use to create date equations.
Function 
Purpose 
ADDDATE 
Add time values (intervals) to a date value 
CONVERT_TZ 
Convert from one time zone to another 
CURDATE 
Return the current date 
CURRENT_DATE 
Synonym for CURDATE() 
CURRENT_TIME 
Synonym for CURTIME() 
CURTIME 
Return the current time 
DATE 
Extract the date part of a date or date/time expression 
DATE_ADD 
Add time values (intervals) to a date value 
DATE_FORMAT 
Format date as specified 
DATE_SUB 
Subtract a time value (interval) from a date 
DATEDIFF 
Subtract two dates 
DAYNAME 
Return the name of the week day for the date value 
DAYOFMONTH 
Return the day number of the month for the date value 
DAYOFWEEK 
Return the weekday index for date (1 = Sunday ... 7= Saturday) 
DAYOFYEAR 
Return the day of the year for date range 1 to 366 
EXTRACT 
Extract part of a date 
FROM_DAYS 
Convert a day number to a date 
FROM_UNIXTIME 
Format Unix timestamp as a date 
GET_FORMAT 
Return a date format string 
HOUR 
Extract the hour 
LAST_DAY 
Return the last day of the month for the argument 
MAKEDATE 
Create a date from the year and day of year 
MAKETIME 
Create time from hour minute second 
MICROSECOND 
Return the microseconds from the argument 
MINUTE 
Return the minute from the argument 
MONTH 
Return the month from the date passed 
MONTHNAME 
Return the full name of the month for the date value 
NOW 
Return the current date and time 
QUARTER 
Return the quarter from a date argument 
SECOND 
Return the second (059) 
STR_TO_DATE 
Convert a string to a date 
SUBDATE 
Synonym for DATE_SUB when invoked with three arguments 
SUBTIME 
Subtract times 
TIME 
Extract the time portion of the expression passed 
TIMEDIFF 
Subtract time 
WEEK 
Return the week number 
WEEKDAY 
Return the weekday index 
WEEKOFYEAR 
Return the calendar week of the date as a number in the range from 1 to 53 
WEEKOFYEAR 
Return the calendar week of the date (153) 
YEAR 
Return the year for the date value 
YEARWEEK 
Return the year and week 
Date Equation Examples
Listed below are several examples of date equations demonstrating date functions in action.
DAYOFMONTH
The DAYOFMONTH function generates the day number of the month given a date value.
Below is a sample equation using the DAYOFMONTH function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the DAYOFMONTH function.
DAYOFWEEK
The DAYOFWEEK function generates a numeric representation for the day of the week that the given date falls on. The generated value will be a number from 17 where 1 is Sunday and 7 is Saturday.
Below is a sample equation using the DAYOFWEEK function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the DAYOFWEEK function.
DAYOFYEAR
The DAYOFYEAR function generates a numeric representation for the day of the year which the given date falls on. The generated value will be a number from 1366.
Below is a sample equation using the DAYOFYEAR function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the DAYOFYEAR function.
LAST_DAY
The LAST_DAY function generates the last date of the month of the given date value. The generated value will be a date format.
Below is a sample equation using the LAST_DAY function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the LAST_DAY function.
YEAR
The YEAR function generates the year of the given date. The output will be a single numeric representation of the year value.
Below is a sample equation using the YEAR function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the YEAR function.
MONTH
The MONTH function generates the month of the given date within its numeric value. The output will be a single numeric representation of the month value.
Below is a sample equation using the MONTH function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the MONTH function.
MONTHNAME
The MONTHNAME function generates the name of the month of the given date. The output will be a text representation of the month value.
Below is a sample equation using the MONTHNAME function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the MONTHNAME function.
NOW
The NOW function generates the current time. This function, unlike the other Date Functions, is not to be used with any fields as input (as illustrated in the image below). The value is saved upon record creation and updated upon saving any type of edit.
Below is a sample equation using the NOW function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the NOW function.
WEEKOFYEAR
The WEEKOFYEAR function generates the week number that the given date falls within. The output will be a single numeric representation of the week.
Below is a sample equation using the WEEKOFYEAR function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the WEEKOFYEAR function.
Number Equations
Number equations can be created using math functions.
Number Functions
Below is a comprehensive list of all the math functions you can use to create number equations.
Function 
Purpose 
ABS 
Return the absolute value 
ACOS 
Return the arc cosine 
ASIN 
Return the arc sine 
ATAN 
Return the arc tangent 
ATAN2 
Return the arc tangent of the two arguments 
CEIL 
Return the smallest integer value not less than the argument 
CEILING 
Return the smallest integer value not less than the argument 
CONV 
Convert numbers between different number bases 
COS 
Return the cosine 
COT 
Return the cotangent 
CRC32 
Compute a cyclic redundancy check value 
DEGREES 
Convert radians to degrees 
EXP 
Raise to the power of 
FLOOR 
Return the largest integer value not greater than the argument 
MOD 
Return the remainder 
PI 
Return the value of pi 
POWER 
Return the argument raised to the specified power 
RADIANS 
Return argument converted to radians 
RAND 
Return a random floatingpoint value 
ROUND 
Round the argument 
SIGN 
Return the sign of the argument 
SIN 
Return the sine of the argument 
SQRT 
Return the square root of the argument 
TAN 
Return the tangent of the argument 
TRUNCATE 
Truncate to specified number of decimal places 
Number Equation Examples
Listed below are several examples of number equations demonstrating math functions in action.
ABS
The ABS function generates the absolute value of your numeric field.
Below is a sample equation using the ABS function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the ABS function.
CEIL
The CEIL function generates the ceiling value of your field. The expected input for this function is a single numeric value.
Below is a sample equation using the CEIL function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the CEIL function.
FLOOR
The FLOOR function generates the floor value of your field. The expected input for this function is a single numeric value.
Below is a sample equation using the FLOOR function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the FLOOR function.
ROUND
The ROUND function generates a value that is rounded, by default, to the nearest whole number.
This function has two different options for input:
 Input with a single numeric value value will be rounded to the nearest whole number (ROUND: Use Case 1)
 Input with two numeric values the first value in the function will be rounded to the nearest nth decimal place (ROUND: Use Case 2)
ROUND: Use Case 1
Equation:
Results:
ROUND: Use Case 2
Equation:
Results where n = 3:
Results where n = 1:
SQRT
The SQRT function generates the square root of your numeric field value. The expected input for this function is a single numeric value.
Below is a sample equation using the SQRT function:
Below are the results of this sample equation using the SQRT function:
Text Equations
Text equations can be created using text functions.
Text Functions
Below is a comprehensive list of all the text functions you can use to create text equations.
Function 
Purpose 
CHAR 
Character for each integer passed 
CHAR_LENGTH 
Return number of characters in an argument 
CONCAT 
Return concatenated string 
CONCAT_WS 
Return concatenate with separator 
FORMAT 
Return a number formatted to specified number of decimal places 
HEX 
Hexadecimal representation of decimal or string value 
LEFT 
Return the leftmost number of characters as specified 
LENGTH 
Return the length of a string in bytes 
LOCATE 
Return the position of the first occurrence of substring 
LOWER 
Return the argument in lowercase 
LTRIM 
Remove leading spaces 
MID 
Return a substring starting from the specified position 
REPEAT 
Repeat a string the specified number of times 
REPLACE(str, from_str, to_str) 
Replace occurrences of a specified string 
REVERSE 
Reverse the characters in a string 
RIGHT 
Return the specified rightmost number of characters 
RPAD 
Append string the specified number of times 
RTRIM 
Remove trailing spaces 
SPACE 
Return a string of the specified number of spaces 
STRCMP 
Compare two strings 
SUBSTRING 
Return the substring as specified 
SUBSTRING_INDEX 
Return a substring from a string before the specified number of occurrences of the delimiter 
TRIM 
Remove leading and trailing spaces 
UPPER 
Uppercase string 
UPPER 
Convert to uppercase 
WEIGHT_STRING 
Return the weight string for a string 
Text Equation Examples
Listed below are several examples of text equations demonstrating text functions in action.
CHAR
The CHAR function generates a character from a numeric value. The result is going to be based on the corresponding character of the numeric input read as an int ASCII code. The input should be a value from 0255. For a character guide, please click here.
Below is a sample equation using the CHAR function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the CHAR function.
CONCAT
The CONCAT function concatenates the given commaseparated inputs. This function requires at least one value, however, two or more should be present for there to a difference between the input and the produced value.
There are two main types of use cases for this function:
 Input with a single field combined with static text (CONCAT: Use Case 1)
 Input with multiple fields combined with static text (CONCAT: Use Case 2)
CONCAT: Use Case 1
Below is a sample equation using the CONCAT function with a single field combined with static text.
Taking a closer look at this sample equation, we can see that (a) is the field and (b) is the static text. When adding text into your function, ensure that it is within single quotes.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the CONCAT function with a single field combined with static text.
CONCAT: Use Case 2
Below is a sample equation using the CONCAT function with multiple fields combined with static text.
Taking a closer look at this sample equation, we can see that (a) and (c) are the fields and (b) is the static text. This example shows the use of CHAR to place a space between the two fields. No more than 254 total fields and static text instances can be used within the CONCAT function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the CONCAT function with multiple fields combined with static text.
LOWER
The LOWER function generates the lowercase representation of your given values. The expected input for this function is a single field.
Below is a sample equation using the LOWER function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the LOWER function.
UPPER
The UPPER function generates the uppercase representation of your given values. The expected input for this function is a single field.
Below is a sample equation using the UPPER function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the UPPER function.
REVERSE
The REVERSE function generates the reverse representation of your given values. The expected input for this function is a single field.
Below is a sample equation using the REVERSE function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the REVERSE function.
LENGTH
The LENGTH function generates a numeric representation of the number of characters in your given values. The expected input for this function is a single field.
Below is a sample equation using the LENGTH function.
Below are the results of this sample equation using the LENGTH function.
REPLACE
The REPLACE function replaces a defined set of characters with another defined set of characters within your given values.
The REPLACE function expects three values as input. Referencing the image below, (a) is the field that will display the replacement of value (b) to value (c), (b) is the text to replace, and (c) is the text that will replace the prior (b) value. You may use fields for values B and C or custom text. Custom text must be enclosed within single quotations (') and all values must be separated with a comma. As a reminder, the entire formula must be enclosed within the function parentheses.
For instance, say you have a Sales Rep field and you would like to replace every entry of "Edward" with "Eddie". You can accomplish this with a REPLACE function as illustrated below.
The result of this equation will appear as such:
At this time, the REPLACE function can only be used within field values that do not contain spaces.
Equation Limitations
Equation fields are readonly and their values can not be set or updated within a form, import, or record rules.

Equation fields can not be added to a form as you can not enter a value for an equation.

Equation fields can not utilize record rules to update their values.

Equation fields can not be mapped within import templates.